RangerIDS - Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
File Integrity Assessment (FIA) products monitor the state of system and application files, or the Registry.
They do this by making an initial pass of a clean system and storing a condensed “snapshot” of how that system should look, usually in the form of cryptographic “hashes” of the monitored objects. Once this has been done, it is impossible to tamper with either the original objects or the hash values without invalidating the checksum files. At regular intervals, the FIA product makes a fresh pass, recalculating the checksum values and comparing them against those stored previously.
Thus if an intruder - or Trojan Horse - does manage to gain access to the system and make changes to key files, the FIA product will detect this and raise an alert. This makes FIA the perfect technology for assessing the true extent of the damage inflicted by a successful attack.
The downside, of course, is that because the scans are periodic rather than real time, its strength is in forensic analysis after an attack has been perpetrated, and thus it is of little use where real-time alerting is required.