RangerIDS - Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
Pattern matching in its most basic form is concerned with the identification of a fixed sequence of bytes in a single packet. In addition to the tell-tale byte sequence, most IDS will also match various combinations of the source and destination IP address or network, source and destination port or service, and the protocol. It is also often possible to tune the signature further by specifying a start and end point for inspection within the packet, or a particular combination of TCP flags.
The more specific these parameters can be, the less inspection needs to be carried out against each packet on the wire. However, this approach can make it more difficult for systems to deal with protocols that do not live on well defined ports and, in particular, Trojans, and their associated traffic, which can usually be moved at will.
Although it is often quite simple to define a signature for a particular exploit, basic pattern matching can often be too specific, sometimes requiring multiple signatures to be defined for minor variations in exploits. They are also prone to false positives, since legitimate traffic can often contain the relatively small set of criteria supposedly used to determine when an attack is taking place.
This method is usually limited to inspection of a single packet and, therefore, does not apply well to the stream-based nature of network traffic such as HTTP sessions. This limitation gives rise to easily implemented evasion techniques.